After reading this article you will learn about Soil Survey:- 1. Meaning of Soil Survey 2. Objectives and Uses of Soil Survey 3. Types 4. Methods.
Meaning of Soil Survey:
Soil survey is essentially a study of soil morphology in the field. Soil survey includes classification of soils of the area in well-defined units, characterisation of soil properties, plotting their extent and boundaries on a map and predication of the adaptability of these soils to various uses.
Objectives and Uses of Soil Survey:
The main objective is to get information about the soil genesis and provide information about the soils resources of the area. Therefore, it forms basis for planned land use and resource management. Soil survey information may be useful in farm planning, which include land uses, cropping system, application of manures and fertilizers, tillage practices, water management.
The information may be utilized for other purposes such as reclamation of problem soils, development of grass and forestry, wildlife protection planning for irrigation and drainage, construction of road, rail-track etc.
Types of Soil Surveys:
(a) Detailed survey
(b) Reconnaissance survey, and
(c) Detailed- reconnaissance survey.
(a) Detailed Surveys:
Elaborate mapping is done, demarcating the lowest categories of taxonomic and mapping units, viz., type and phasesâ€”which are genetically quite homogeneous.
(b) Reconnaissance Surveys:
The mapping is less elaborate and larger areas are surveyed rapidly. Such surveys provide broad undertaking of soils and are particularly useful in new and relatively undeveloped regions for general planning. Reconnaissance survey fairly serves the purpose in areas of lesser importance such as in mountainous regions.
(c) Detailed-Reconnaissance Survey:
They constitute elements of both detailed and reconnaissance surveys. The regions of better use potentialities are surveyed in detail while reconnaissance surveys are made in regions of low potentialities.
Methods of Soil Survey:
They primarily concern the studying of soil profiles in the filed as well as in the laboratory; mapping soils according to well-defined legends ; collecting all relevant information about the climate, physiography, hydrology, geology, vegetation, present land use; scientific data about recommended practices and their responses; socio-economical conditions of the area; and preparing soil reports and soil maps.