After reading this article you will learn about the management and use of poor quality water.
Management of Poor Quality Water:
1. Application of greater amounts of organic matter such as FYM, compost etc., to the soil to improve permeability and structure.
2. Increasing the proportion of calcium, through addition of gypsum (CaSO4) to the irrigation water in the channel, by keeping pebbles mixed pure gypsum bundles in the irrigation tank.
3. Mixing of good quality water with poor quality water in proper proportions so that both the sources of water are effectively used to maximum advantage.
4. Periodical application of organic matter and raising as well as incorporation of green manure crops in the soil.
5. Irrigating the land with small quantities of water at frequent intervals instead of large quantity at a time.
6. Application of fertilizer may be increased slightly more than the normally required and preferably ammonium sulphate for nitrogen, super phosphate and Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) for phosphorus application.
7. Drainage facilities must be improved.
8. Raising of salt tolerant crops such as cotton, ragi, sugar beet, paddy, groundnut, sorghum, corn, sunflower, chillies, tobacco, onion, tomato, garden beans, amaranthus and lucerne.
Use of Poor Quality Water:
Besides the salinity and alkalinity hazard of water, some industrial effluents and sewage water are also problem water that can be reused by proper treatment. The complex growth of industries and urbanization (Urban development) leads to massive increase in waste water in the form of sewage and effluent.
Waste water supplies not only nutrient but also some toxic elements such as total solids of chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, sodium chromium, calcium magnesium, etc., in high concentration. Besides this the effluent or waste water creates BOD (Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand). These waste water when used for irrigation leads to surface and sub-surface source of pollution due to horizontal and vertical seepage.